What are the highest and lowest temperatures ever recorded on Earth?

Dear Tom,
What are the highest and lowest temperatures ever recorded on Earth?
—Leon J. Hoffman, Ph.D., Chicago

Dear Dr. Hoffman,
The world’s recorded temperature extremes span a range of 263 degrees. The 134-degree temperature measured July 10, 1913, at Greenland Ranch in Death Valley, Calif., is the world’s highest, while this planet’s lowest reading, 129 degrees below zero, was recorded at Vostok, located in the interior of Antarctica, on July 21, 1983.
For many years, the world’s highest temperature was listed as 136 degrees at El Azizia, Libya, recorded Sept. 13, 1922. But in 2012, after an exhaustive review by the World Meteorological Organization, that reading was disqualified for a variety of reasons, among them an inexperienced observer, problems with the instrumentation and a poor relationship to surrounding temperatures.
The world’s recorded temperature extremes span a range of 263 degrees.